Allergic asthma is the most common form of asthma, affecting more than 10 million Americans. Although it is clear that mast cells have a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, the mechanisms by which they regulate airway narrowing in vivo remain to be elucidated. Here we report that mice lacking αvβ6 integrin are protected from exaggerated airway narrowing in a model of allergic asthma. Expression microarrays of the airway epithelium revealed mast cell proteases among the most prominent differentially expressed genes, with expression of mouse mast cell protease 1 (mMCP-1) induced by allergen challenge in WT mice and expression of mMCP-4, -5, and -6 increased at baseline in β6-deficient mice. These findings were most likely explained by loss of TGF-β activation, since the epithelial integrin αvβ6 is a critical activator of latent TGF-β, and in vitro–differentiated mast cells showed TGF-β–dependent expression of mMCP-1 and suppression of mMCP-4 and -6. In vitro, mMCP-1 increased contractility of murine tracheal rings, an effect that depended on intact airway epithelium, whereas mMCP-4 inhibited IL-13–induced epithelial-independent enhancement of contractility. These results suggest that intraepithelial activation of TGF-β by the αvβ6 integrin regulates airway responsiveness by modulating mast cell protease expression and that these proteases and their proteolytic substrates could be novel targets for improved treatment of allergic asthma.
Kotaro Sugimoto, Makoto Kudo, Aparna Sundaram, Xin Ren, Katherine Huang, Xin Bernstein, Yanli Wang, Wilfred W. Raymond, David J. Erle, Magnus Åbrink, George H. Caughey, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Current paradigms suggest that two macrophage subsets, termed M1 and M2, are involved in inflammation and host defense. While the distinct functions of M1 and M2 macrophages have been intensively studied — the former are considered proinflammatory and the latter antiinflammatory — the determinants of their speciation are incompletely understood. Here we report our studies that identify Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a critical regulator of macrophage polarization. Macrophage KLF4 expression was robustly induced in M2 macrophages and strongly reduced in M1 macrophages, observations that were recapitulated in human inflammatory paradigms in vivo. Mechanistically, KLF4 was found to cooperate with Stat6 to induce an M2 genetic program and inhibit M1 targets via sequestration of coactivators required for NF-κB activation. KLF4-deficient macrophages demonstrated increased proinflammatory gene expression, enhanced bactericidal activity, and altered metabolism. Furthermore, mice bearing myeloid-specific deletion of KLF4 exhibited delayed wound healing and were predisposed to developing diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Collectively, these data identify KLF4 as what we believe to be a novel regulator of macrophage polarization.
Xudong Liao, Nikunj Sharma, Fehmida Kapadia, Guangjin Zhou, Yuan Lu, Hong Hong, Kaavya Paruchuri, Ganapati H. Mahabeleshwar, Elise Dalmas, Nicolas Venteclef, Chris A. Flask, Julian Kim, Bryan W. Doreian, Kurt Q. Lu, Klaus H. Kaestner, Anne Hamik, Karine Clément, Mukesh K. Jain
The regulation of neutrophil lifespan by induction of apoptosis is critical for maintaining an effective host response and preventing excessive inflammation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing pathway has a major effect on the susceptibility of neutrophils to apoptosis, with a marked delay in cell death observed under hypoxic conditions. HIF expression and transcriptional activity are regulated by the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1–3), but the role of PHDs in neutrophil survival is unclear. We examined PHD expression in human neutrophils and found that PHD3 was strongly induced in response to hypoxia and inflammatory stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Using neutrophils from mice deficient in Phd3, we demonstrated a unique role for Phd3 in prolonging neutrophil survival during hypoxia, distinct from other hypoxia-associated changes in neutrophil function and metabolic activity. Moreover, this selective defect in neutrophil survival occurred in the presence of preserved HIF transcriptional activity but was associated with upregulation of the proapoptotic mediator Siva1 and loss of its binding target Bcl-xL. In vivo, using an acute lung injury model, we observed increased levels of neutrophil apoptosis and clearance in Phd3-deficient mice compared with WT controls. We also observed reduced neutrophilic inflammation in an acute mouse model of colitis. These data support what we believe to be a novel function for PHD3 in regulating neutrophil survival in hypoxia and may enable the development of new therapeutics for inflammatory disease.
Sarah R. Walmsley, Edwin R. Chilvers, Alfred A. Thompson, Kathryn Vaughan, Helen M. Marriott, Lisa C. Parker, Gary Shaw, Selina Parmar, Martin Schneider, Ian Sabroe, David H. Dockrell, Marta Milo, Cormac T. Taylor, Randall S. Johnson, Christopher W. Pugh, Peter J. Ratcliffe, Patrick H. Maxwell, Peter Carmeliet, Moira K.B. Whyte
Uncontrolled macrophage activation is now considered to be a critical event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic venous leg ulcers. However, it is still unclear which environmental cues induce persistent activation of macrophages in vivo and how macrophage-derived effector molecules maintain chronic inflammation and affect resident fibroblasts essential for tissue homeostasis and repair. We used a complementary approach studying human subjects with chronic venous leg ulcers, a model disease for macrophage-driven chronic inflammation, while establishing a mouse model closely reflecting its pathogenesis. Here, we have shown that iron overloading of macrophages — as was found to occur in human chronic venous leg ulcers and the mouse model — induced a macrophage population in situ with an unrestrained proinflammatory M1 activation state. Via enhanced TNF-α and hydroxyl radical release, this macrophage population perpetuated inflammation and induced a p16INK4a-dependent senescence program in resident fibroblasts, eventually leading to impaired wound healing. This study provides insight into the role of what we believe to be a previously undescribed iron-induced macrophage population in vivo. Targeting this population may hold promise for the development of novel therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic venous leg ulcers.
Anca Sindrilaru, Thorsten Peters, Stefan Wieschalka, Corina Baican, Adrian Baican, Henriette Peter, Adelheid Hainzl, Susanne Schatz, Yu Qi, Andrea Schlecht, Johannes M. Weiss, Meinhard Wlaschek, Cord Sunderkötter, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Activation of NF-κB and 5-lipoxygenase–mediated (5-LO–mediated) biosynthesis of the lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are pivotal components of host defense and inflammatory responses. However, the role of LTB4 in mediating innate immune responses elicited by specific TLR ligands and cytokines is unknown. Here we have shown that responses dependent on MyD88 (an adaptor protein that mediates signaling through all of the known TLRs, except TLR3, as well as IL-1β and IL-18) are reduced in mice lacking either 5-LO or the LTB4 receptor BTL1, and that macrophages from these mice are impaired in MyD88-dependent activation of NF-κB. This macrophage defect was associated with lower basal and inducible expression of MyD88 and reflected impaired activation of STAT1 and overexpression of the STAT1 inhibitor SOCS1. Expression of MyD88 and responsiveness to the TLR4 ligand LPS were decreased by Stat1 siRNA silencing in WT macrophages and restored by Socs1 siRNA in 5-LO–deficient macrophages. These results uncover a pivotal role in macrophages for the GPCR BLT1 in regulating activation of NF-κB through Stat1-dependent expression of MyD88.
Carlos H. Serezani, Casey Lewis, Sonia Jancar, Marc Peters-Golden
Granulocytes are pivotal regulators of tissue injury. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate granulopoiesis under inflammatory conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional coregulator B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) limits granulopoiesis under emergency (i.e., inflammatory) conditions, but not homeostatic conditions. Treatment of mouse myeloid progenitors with G-CSF — serum concentrations of which rise under inflammatory conditions — rapidly increased Bcl3 transcript accumulation in a STAT3-dependent manner. Bcl3-deficient myeloid progenitors demonstrated an enhanced capacity to proliferate and differentiate into granulocytes following G-CSF stimulation, whereas the accumulation of Bcl3 protein attenuated granulopoiesis in an NF-κB p50–dependent manner. In a clinically relevant model of transplant-mediated lung ischemia reperfusion injury, expression of Bcl3 in recipients inhibited emergency granulopoiesis and limited acute graft damage. These data demonstrate a critical role for Bcl3 in regulating emergency granulopoiesis and suggest that targeting the differentiation of myeloid progenitors may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing inflammatory lung injury.
Daniel Kreisel, Seiichiro Sugimoto, Jeremy Tietjens, Jihong Zhu, Sumiharu Yamamoto, Alexander S. Krupnick, Ruaidhri J. Carmody, Andrew E. Gelman
Chong Chen, Yu Liu, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
The alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation is constitutively active and must be regulated by host proteins to prevent autologous tissue injury. Dysfunction of AP regulatory proteins has been linked to several human inflammatory disorders. Properdin is a positive regulator of AP complement activation that has been shown to extend the half-life of cell surface–bound C3 convertase C3bBb; it may also initiate AP complement activation. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for properdin in autologous tissue injury mediated by AP complement activation. We identified myeloid lineage cells as the principal source of plasma properdin by generating mice with global and tissue-specific knockout of Cfp (which encodes properdin) and by generating BM chimeric mice. Properdin deficiency rescued mice from AP complement–mediated embryonic lethality caused by deficiency of the membrane complement regulator Crry and markedly reduced disease severity in the K/BxN model of arthritis. Ab neutralization of properdin in WT mice similarly ameliorated arthritis development, whereas reconstitution of properdin-null mice with exogenous properdin restored arthritis sensitivity. These data implicate systemic properdin as a key contributor to AP complement–mediated injury and support its therapeutic targeting in complement-dependent human diseases.
Yuko Kimura, Lin Zhou, Takashi Miwa, Wen-Chao Song
Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that regulates iron homeostasis and acts as an antimicrobial peptide. It is expressed and secreted by a variety of cell types in response to iron loading and inflammation. Hepcidin mediates iron homeostasis by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin, inducing its internalization and degradation via activation of the protein kinase Jak2 and the subsequent phosphorylation of ferroportin. Here we have shown that hepcidin-activated Jak2 also phosphorylates the transcription factor Stat3, resulting in a transcriptional response. Hepcidin treatment of ferroportin-expressing mouse macrophages showed changes in mRNA expression levels of a wide variety of genes. The changes in transcript levels for half of these genes were a direct effect of hepcidin, as shown by cycloheximide insensitivity, and dependent on the presence of Stat3. Hepcidin-mediated transcriptional changes modulated LPS-induced transcription in both cultured macrophages and in vivo mouse models, as demonstrated by suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α transcript and secreted protein. Hepcidin-mediated transcription in mice also suppressed toxicity and morbidity due to single doses of LPS, poly(I:C), and turpentine, which is used to model chronic inflammatory disease. Most notably, we demonstrated that hepcidin pretreatment protected mice from a lethal dose of LPS and that hepcidin-knockout mice could be rescued from LPS toxicity by injection of hepcidin. The results of our study suggest a new function for hepcidin in modulating acute inflammatory responses.
Ivana De Domenico, Tian Y. Zhang, Curry L. Koening, Ryan W. Branch, Nyall London, Eric Lo, Raymond A. Daynes, James P. Kushner, Dean Li, Diane M. Ward, Jerry Kaplan
HSCs are BM-derived, self-renewing multipotent cells that develop into circulating blood cells. They have been implicated in the repair of inflamed parenchymal tissue, but the signals that regulate their trafficking to sites of inflammation are unknown. As monocytes are recruited to sites of inflammation via chemoattractants that activate CCR2 on their surface, we investigated whether HSCs are also recruited to sites of inflammation through CCR2. Initial analysis indicated that in mice, CCR2 was expressed on subsets of HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and that freshly isolated primitive hematopoietic cells (Lin–c-Kit+ cells) responded to CCR2 ligands in vitro. In vivo analysis indicated that after instillation of thioglycollate to cause aseptic inflammation and after administration of acetaminophen to induce liver damage, endogenous HSCs/HPCs were actively recruited to the peritoneum and liver, respectively, in WT but not Ccr2–/– mice. HSCs/HPCs recovered from the peritoneum successfully engrafted into the BM of irradiated primary and secondary recipients, confirming their self renewal and multipotency. Importantly, administration of exogenous WT, but not Ccr2–/–, HSCs/HPCs accelerated resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and triggered the expression of genes characteristic of the macrophage M2 or repair phenotype. These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel role for CCR2 in the homing of HSCs/HPCs to sites of inflammation and suggest new functions for chemokines in promoting tissue repair and regeneration.
Yue Si, Chia-Lin Tsou, Kelsey Croft, Israel F. Charo
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